Nanzenji Temple Complex, Kyoto 南禅寺
by Alan J. Wiren
If you're looking for the quintessential Japan don't miss Nanzenji. This large temple complex is home to priceless treasures, echoes Japan's most violent history, and preserves a culinary style dating back eight hundred years. Nanzenji's origin is steeped in the mysticism of Zen.
Legend has it that when Emperor Kameyama withdrew to his retirement palace in Kyoto, disturbing things began to happen there. Doors flew open by themselves and the royal family felt ghostly hands press upon them. The Buddhist priest called to perform an exorcism burnt incense, prayed and chanted, but to no avail.
The emperor turned next to the Zen priest, Fumon. In the year 1290, Fumon sat down in the palace and began to meditate. When he was through, the spectral squatter was gone. So impressed was Kameyama with the power of Zen (the story goes) that he handed over half of his palace to Fumon in order that he might teach Zen there. Kameyama also became a student in the new school and granted himself the title of Great Priest.
The beginnings of Nanzenji Temple
When Kameyama turned over the remainder of the palace to Fumon, Nanzenji, which has remained the world's most important Zen temple to this day, was complete.
Whether or not you believe in ghosts, the story illustrates Japan's political state at the time. The samurai class had taken over the government, in all but name, from the emperor. The order of succession had skipped the eldest male, splitting the royal bloodline. It was often easier for an emperor in those days to wield influence from under the tonsure of a priest, than from under a crown.
What Kamayama had done was to give a headquarters to the Zen sect of Buddhism in direct defiance of the established Buddhist authority whose headquarters was a temple at Mount Hiei. Zen was something of an upstart in Japan, introduced from China only a century before. Seemingly incidentally, he had introduced Zen into the imperial family as well.
The Power of Zen Buddhism
Emperor Kamayama had taken two great steps in fostering power for the Zen movement in Japan, and the trend continued after the grant of Nanzenji.
It became customary for Shoguns to take Zen priests as their advisers, and five more Zen temples appeared in Kyoto, all under the stewardship of Nanzenji. This was also a time when a temple might maintain a standing army, and the monks at Mount Hiei did not sit still while Zen Buddhism gained its foothold.
In 1393 they marched on Nanzenji and razed it to the ground. Ultimately this served as the first demonstration that destroying the property could not keep Nanzenji down. Zen was a movement, not only for the religious and political elite, but of the common people, and Nanzenji was its icon.
The temple was rebuilt, severely damaged in a fire half a century later, and once again completely destroyed during the Onin War in 1467. It was rebuilt for the last time one hundred thirty years later. Nanzenji has received restorations and gifts from some of the most wealthy and powerful people in Japanese history, and has become a treasure trove of artistic and historical artifacts.
Nanzenji Temple occupies a large tract of land - about 800 meters long and about 500 meters at its widest - which Nanzenji Temple itself sits roughly in the center of, surrounded by over a dozen sub-temples and a great number of other miscellaneous structures. Admission into the grounds themselves is free, but the three main sights: the Sanmon Gate, the Nanzen-in sub-temple, and the Hojo Teien garden, are charged for separately.
The Sanmon is first thing you will see as you approach, and is one of the largest temple gates in Japan. The Sanmon Gate is made of wood, impressively blackened by age. Its name means "Three Gates" and you may pass through any of three great portals that represent the paths of liberation offered by Zen Buddhism. In addition to passing through the gate, you may climb up the steep staircases inside it. They lead to an upper deck that surrounds the gate's central chamber.
The chamber is home to a carved Buddha with a jeweled crown, flanked by sixteen statues of arhat (Buddhists who have achieved enlightenment). The columns that stand on either side are painted in a style that harks back to the Indian origins of Zen.
The deck affords a view of Kyoto and the Nanzenji complex, spread out on either side. Although Nanzenji once comprised sixty-two subtemples, it has been reduced to nine. Zen Buddhism is still taught there, so not all of them are open to the public.
Nanzen-in is the subtemple said to be the heart of Nanzenji. In the Nanzen-in building are the partial remains of Emperor Kaneyama, and his statue. Outside there is a garden that centers on a pool, fed by a waterfall, with a path that goes completely around it, so you may see the pool and its islands from any angle.
The Hojo, and Hojo Teien Gardens
The current visitor's center of the complex is a sprawling building called the Hojo. An entire section of the Hojo building was imported from a grand palace built in Fushimi City by the last shogun of Japan's Warring States Period. It is filled with scores of fusuma (sliding paper doors) painted with gilt backgrounds and images of leopards and tigers, or at least what the artists thought leopards and tigers must look like, having never seen either one.
The Hojo is surrounded by gardens, called the Hojo Teien, which require a separate admission fee to enter. The Hojo gardens are either of stone and gravel, or landscaped with mossy-banked pools. They are examples of the Japanese art of reproducing the world in miniature, framed with a simple elegance. Wandering through the Hojo you will find, tucked in here and there, priceless objects donated by patrons of Nanzenji.
Shojin Ryori - Zen vegetarian cuisine
The Choshoin subtemple preserves something more ephemeral, but no less valuable. At the time Nanzenji came into being, a new way of dining was gaining popularity among the residents of Buddhist temples. Shojin Ryori is a style of vegetarian cuisine that emphasizes simplicity, but is by no means dull. Rather it focuses the senses on singular tastes and textures by combining them in delectable harmony.
Choshoin serves lunches in this style, and in an environment that could not be better suited to it. Arrive before noon, and you will probably be able to choose a seat on the tatami covered floor of the temple's interior, on the deck overlooking the carefully styled garden, or on a deck built out over the pond that skirts the edge of the garden. There you can enjoy a Japanese lunch the way Choshoin has been making them for the past three hundred years.
Hours and Admission
Nanzenji Temple is open 8:40am - 4:30pm December to February, and 8:40am - 5pm March - November.
Entry into the Nanzenji complex is free, but, once inside, admission fees are charged on a per-attraction basis. Entry to the Hojo Garden costs 500 yen for adults, to the Sanmon Gate 500 yen for adults, and to Nanzen-in 300 yen for adults - a total of 1,300 yen to view all three.
Getting to Nanzenji Temple
Nanzenji Temple is less than 10 minutes walk from Keage Station on the Tozai Subway Line. Go right out of Exit 2 of Keage Station and after about a minute's walk take the "Nejirimanbo Tunnel" on your right, which leads you directly to Nanzenji.
By bus, take city bus #46 to the Kyoto Kaikan Bijitsukan-mae stop or bus #5 or Raku Bus #100 to the nearer Nanzenji/Eikando-mae stop.
Tel: 075 771 0365
Accommodation near NanzenjiKyoto Garden Ryokan Yachiyo with its stylish, traditional-type Japanese rooms and beautiful garden is on the western edge of Nanzenji, a short walk from Keage Subway Station.
The world-class resort hotel, the Westin Miyako Hotel Kyoto full of the finest facilities for the travel-lover is only a minute's walk from Keage Subway Station, and 5 minutes walk to Nanzenji.
The Nomura Art Museum is effectively within the grounds of Nanzenji. The focus of the Nomura Art Museum collection is on the tea ceremony and Noh. Hours: 10am - 4:30pm, closed Monday, admission fee 700 yen for adults.
Kurodani Temple is a short walk north-west from the northern end of Nanzenji.
The Philosopher's Path stretches north from Nanzenji Temple, going through Eikando, Kumano Nyakuoji Shrine, Reikanji Temple, Anrakuji, Honen-in and finally Ginkakuji (the "Temple of the Silver Pavilion"). Bicycle is a good way to see Nanzenji and the temples and shrines on the Philosopher's Path. Allow 20-25 minutes at a leisurely speed as you ride slightly uphill.
Text and Photos by Alan Wiren
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